The Korean Society of Pesticide Science

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The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science - Vol. 22 , No. 3

[ ORIGINAL ARTICLES ]
The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science - Vol. 22, No. 3, pp.225-244
Abbreviation: Korean J. Pestic. Sci.
ISSN: 1226-6183 (Print) 2287-2051 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Sep 2018
Received 07 Aug 2018 Revised 17 Sep 2018 Accepted 20 Sep 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7585/kjps.2018.22.3.225

농약 제품 및 원제의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 비교 평가
조유미* ; 박수진 ; 유아선 ; 오진아 ; 이제봉 ; 박연기1 ; 이주연 ; 정미혜
국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부 농자재평가과
1국립식량과학원 작물기초기반과

Comparison Assessment for Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of Plant Protection Products and Active Ingredients
Youmi Jo* ; Soojin Park ; Are-Sun You ; Jin A Oh ; Je Bong Lee ; Yeon-Ki Park1 ; Ju Yeon Lee ; Mihye Jeong
Division of Agro-material Safety evaluation, Department of Agro-food Safety, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanjugun, Korea, Division of Crop Foundation
1National Institute of Crop Science, Wanjugun, Korea
Correspondence to : *E-mail: gurigoori@korea.kr

Funding Information ▼

초록

농약 독성 구분과 표시를 위해 농약관리법에서는 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 시험성적을 제출하도록 하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 급성경구독성 자료로 급성경피독성을 예측하고 급성독성을 평가할 수 있는지 알아보고자 511개 제품과 72개 원제의 급성경구독성, 급성경피독성을 비교·분석하였다. 농약관리법 기준을 적용 시 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 등급이 제품의 78%가 동일하였고, GHS 분류체계 적용 시에는 77.9%가 동일하였다. 급성경구독성이 경피독성보다 더 강한 경우는 농약관리법 분류체계, GHS 분류체계 적용 시 각각 13.5%, 21.9%으로, 제품의 91.5%, 99.7%가 급성경구독성으로 제품의 독성 등급이 구분되었다. 원제의 경우, 위험성·유해성 분류에 따른 표시기준에 준하여 독성을 분류하였다. 급성경구독성, 급성경피독성 시험의 각 LD50을 이용하여 독성을 분류하였을 때대상 원제 100%가 급성경구독성이 급성경피독성 등급과 같거나 독성이 더 강하게 분류되었다. 하지만 급성경피독성 자료 없이 급성경구독성의 LD50로만 급성경피독성 기준에 따라 경피독성 등급을 구분하였을 때, 급성경피독성 LD50 자료를 이용했을 때보다 원제의 21.4%에서 독성이 더 강하게 구분되었다. 이를 통해 급성경피 독성자료가 농약 독성 평가에 추가적인 정보를 거의 제공하지 않는다는 것을 알 수 있었다.

Abstract

The Korean Pesticide Control Act requires acute oral and dermal toxicity tests for hazard classification and labelling of agrochemicals to protect human health. In this study, we investigated whether acute oral toxicity testing for pesticides and active ingredients could be used to determine acute dermal hazard category and acute systemic toxicity. This retrospective analysis used oral and dermal LD50 data for 511 end-use products and 72 active ingredients submitted to RDA for registration. The concordance of oral and dermal hazard classification was 78% and 77.9% of products by RDA and GHS system, respectively. The acute oral toxicity was more potent than the acute dermal toxicity for 13.5% and 21.9% of products by RDA and GHS system. Using the oral hazard category as a predictor for dermal hazard, 91.5% and 99.7% of end-use products, by each RDA and GHS system, would have the same or more conservative dermal hazard category and therefore would have more protective hazard labelling. Also, the oral hazard category derived from oral LD50 was the same as or over-classified the dermal hazard category from dermal LD50 for 100% of active ingredients. However, when oral LD50 was used for dermal toxicity category of active ingredients without acute dermal toxicity testing data, over-prediction of dermal hazard was 21.4% which indicates that oral LD50 are sufficiently protective for acute dermal hazard classification. Taken together, dermal acute systemic toxicity data hardly provides additory value in regulatory decision making.


Keywords: acute dermal toxicity, acute oral toxicity, pesticides
키워드: 급성경피독성, 급성경구독성, 농약

서 론

사람은 음식 섭취, 농약 제조 및 살포, 농산물 수확 등의 과정에서 피부, 입 등 다양한 경로로 농약에 노출될 수 있다(Spiewak, 2001; Christos et al., 2016). 특히 피부는 입 이외 농약 흡수의 주요 경로로, 피부를 통한 흡수는 내적 노출(internal exposure)에 상당한 영향을 미칠 수 있다(Drexler, 1998). 농약관리법에 따른 농약 및 원제의 등록기준 「농촌진흥청고시 제2017-26호」에서는 국내에 농약을 등록하기 위해 노출 경로에 따른 급성경구독성, 급성경피독성 시험을 필수적으로 제출하도록 한다(RDA, 2017a). 반수치사약량(LD50, mg/kg 체중)을 근거로 급성경구 또는 급성경피 독성을 맹독성(1급), 고독성(2급), 보통독성(3급), 저독성(4급)의 4단계로 분류한다. 분류된 급성경구독성 등급과 급성경피독성 등급을 비교하여 더 독성이 강한 등급으로 농약 제품의 독성을 구분 및 표시하고 있다. 원제는 농약, 원제 및 농약활용기자재의 표시기준「농촌진흥청고시 제2017-27호」별표 5 원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에 따른 표시기준에 준하여 구분1에서 구분5까지 분류된다(RDA, 2017b).

급성독성은 1회 노출 시켰을 때 24시간 내에 나타나는 전신독성영향으로, 실험동물의 치사를 독성종말점(endpoint)으로 사용하여 반수치사약량(LD50, mg/kg 체중)으로 표시한다(Botham, 2004; Seidle et al., 2010). 하지만 최근 국내외로 실험동물에 대한 생명윤리 강화와 동물실험 규제에 따라 급성독성을 중심으로 동물실험 개선, 동물수 감소, 대체법 개발과 같은 다양한 연구가 진행 되고 있다(Hamm et al., 2017). 예로 급성독성에서 종말점으로 사용하는 치사는 윤리적, 동물 복지 관점에서 논쟁이 되어(Botham, 2004; Seidle et al., 2010), 치사 대신 독성 징후를 종말점으로 사용하고 실험 동물수를 줄이는 방법이 개발되었다(OECD, 2001, 2017, 2018). 또한 비동물시험, 예측 모델 등 대체 자료를 제출함으로써 동물 시험 면제 또는 대체가 가능하도록 하고 있으며 경구, 피부 등 복수의 노출 경로나 설치류, 토끼 등 복수의 동물 종을 사용하여 불필요하게 반복하는 동물실험을 지양하도록 하고 있다 (Creton et al., 2010; Seidle et al., 2010).

농약 독성 분야에서도 독성 구분 및 표시에 있어 추가적인 정보를 제공하지 못하는 불필요한 시험의 경우, 시험 면제 등을 통해 동물의 희생을 줄이고자 하고 있다(AMPVA, 2018; EU, 2013a, 2013b; HSE, 2018; OECD, 2016). 미국과 캐나다는 농약의 급성독성 시험 면제 또는 대체에 대한 지침을 제시하고 있으며(EPA 2012; PMRA, 2013), 최근에 농약 제품 또는 원제에 대한 급성경피독성시험 면제에 대한 지침을 발표하였다(EPA 2016; PMRA, 2017b).

따라서 본 연구에서는 국내 등록 기준을 적용 시, 급성경구독성시험자료로 급성경피독성을 예측하고, 제품에 독성표시를 할 수 있는지 알아보고자 국내 등록 농약 제품과 원제를 이용하여 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성을 비교·분석하였다.


재료 및 방법
대상농약 선정

본 연구에서는 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성을 비교하기 위해 2013년부터 2017년 등록 신청된 신규 및 기등록 농약 511제품을 선정하였다. 원제는 2008년부터 2017년까지 등록된 72개의 원제를 선정하였다. 시험물질의 물리적 상태, 노출 유형을 고려하여 페로몬 방출제, 미생물제재는 대상 농약에서 제외하였다. 또한 급성경구독성시험과 급성경피독성시험에서 마우스나 토끼 등 서로 다른 종의 동물을 사용하였을 경우 대상 농약에서 제외하였다.

농약관리법 및 GHS에 따른 농약 제품의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 비교

농약관리법과 GHS 분류체계에 근거하여 농약 제품의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성을 구분하였다(Fig. 1). 반수치사약량이 범위로 표시되어있을 경우 cut-off 값을 기준으로 분류하였다. GHS 분류체계에서 구분 5와 분류되지 않음(unclassified)은 그림문자와 유해위험문구 표기를 요하지 않으므로 동일한 등급으로 구분하였다.


Fig. 1. 
The categories of classification for the acute oral and dermal toxicity. Classification categories are shown according to (A) Korean categorization systems for solid and (B) for liquid formulations, and (C) GHS for plant protection products and RDA labelling criteria for active ingredients. The dashed lined represents the points where the LD50 values for oral and dermal routes are identical.

원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에 따른 원제의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 비교

농약, 원제 및 농약활용기자재의 표시기준「농촌진흥청고시 제2017-27호」별표 5 원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에 따른 표시기준에 따라 원제의 급성독성을 구분하고 있다(Fig. 1). 급성경구 및 급성경피독성에 대한 그림 문자와 유해·위험문구를 요구하고 있으므로 급성경구독성 자료로 급성경피독성을 대체할 수 있는지 알아보고자 두 가지 방법으로 분석하였다. 첫 번째 방법으로 급성경구독성시험과 급성경피독성시험의 각 LD50을 근거로 독성을 분류하여 비교하였고, 두 번째 방법으로는 급성경구독성 시험의 LD50 값을 이용하여 급성경구독성 및 급성경피독성을 분류하여 비교하였다. LD50 값이 5000 mg/kg 체중을 초과하는 경우는 분류되지 않음(unclassified)로 구분하였다.


결과 및 고찰
농약 제품 분류

511개의 제품은 액상수화제, 입제 등 28개의 제형으로 분류되었고(Table 1), 이 중 156개 제품은 1개의 원제, 278개 제품은 2개의 원제, 74개 제품은 3개의 원제, 3개 제품은 4개의 원제를 포함하고 있었다. 부자재의 제품 조성비가 다르고 시험 연구소에 따라 시험결과가 다르게 나올 수 있으므로 원제함량이 동일하더라도 데이터베이스에 포함하여 분석하였다. 동일한 원제 함량을 가지는 품목은 18품목이었고, 총 45개의 제품이 있었다.

Table 1. 
Formulated pesticide products types in the dataset
Formulation type Number Formulation type Number
Dispersible concentrate (DC) 11 Paste (PA) 4
Dustable powder (DP) 7 Smoke pellet (FW) 2
Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) 28 Soluble concentrate (SL) 36
Emulsion, oil in water (EW) 7 Suspension concentrate (SC) 157
Emulsion powder (EP) 2 Suspo-emulsion (SE) 11
Fine granule (FG) 7 Tablet for direct application (DT) 17
Floweble concentrate for seed treatment (FS) 3 Up granule (UG) 3
Gas generating product (GE) 1 Water dispersible granules (WG) 54
Gas (GA) 1 Water dispersible powder for slumy seed treatment (WS) 1
Granule (GR) 110 Water dispersible tablet (WT) 4
Macrogranule (GG) 4 Water soluble granule (SG) 1
Microemulsion (ME) 13 Water soluble powder (SP) 2
Oil dispersion (OD) 1 Wettable powder (WP) 20
Other liquid to be applied undiluted (AL) 3 A mixed formulation of CS & SC (ZC) 1

농약관리법에 따른 제품의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 비교

농약관리법에 따라 독성을 분류하였을 때 등록된 제품 중 78%가 급성경구독성 등급과 급성경피독성 등급이 동일하였다. 제품의 13.5%는 급성경구독성이 급성경피독성보다 더 강하여 최종 제품의 독성이 급성경구독성 등급에 따라 분류되었다. 즉 511개의 제품 중 468개의 제품이 급성경구독성 시험성적으로 최종 제품 독성이 분류되었다. 반면 8.4%는 급성경피독성이 급성경구독성보다 강하여, 최종 제품의 독성이 급성경피시험 성적에 의해 결정되었다(Table 2, Fig. 2). 이에 해당하는 제품을 분석한 결과, 총 43개 제품 중 모든 제품이 액상 형태의 제품이었으며 1개 제품(Glufosinate-ammonium.MCPA SL)을 제외한 42개 제품 모두 한계 투여 용량(limit test)으로 2000 mg/kg bw을 투여한 국외 성적 자료이었다. 국내 농약관리법에서는 액체 상태의 농약일 경우 LD50가 4000 mg/kg bw 이상일 때 급성경피 저독성으로 구분된다. 따라서 국외에서 생산한 독성자료를 이용하여 42개 제품의 독성을 구분하였을 때 LD50가 2000 mg/kg bw 초과로 급성경피 보통독성으로 분류되어 급성경피독성이 더 강하게 평가되었다. 이 42개의 제품 중 같은 품목이나 국내에서 4000 mg/kg bw를 투여하여 생산한 독성 자료를 가지고 있는 제품이 있었는데, 국내에서 생산한 성적에 따르면 LD50가 4000 mg/kg bw 초과로 급성경피 저독성으로 분류되었다. 따라서 2000 mg/kg bw 대신에 4000 mg/kg bw으로 투여하였을 때, 급성경피 보통독성에서 저독성으로 분류될 가능성이 있을 것이라 평가되었다.

Table 2. 
Acute oral and dermal classification of plant protection products
No Agrochemical formulation Korean system GHS system
Oral
toxicity
Dermal
toxicity
Oral
toxicity
Dermal
toxicity
1 1-Methylcyclopropene GE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
2 Abamectin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
3 Abamectin.Acetamiprid ME Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
4 Abamectin.Acetamiprid WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
5 Abamectin.Acrinathrin EW Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
6 Abamectin.Buprofezin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
7 Abamectin.Buprofezin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
8 Abamectin.Chlorfenapyr SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
9 Abamectin.Cyflumetofen DC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
10 Abamectin.Dinotefuran SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
11 Abamectin.Emamectinbenzoate ME Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
12 Abamectin.Emamectinbenzoate WP Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
13 Abamectin.Fenazaquin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
14 Abamectin.Methidathion WP Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 4
15 Abamectin.Pyrifluquinazon WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
16 Abamectin.Spinetoram SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
17 Abamectin.Spirodiclofen SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
18 Abamectin.Spirodiclofen SC Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
19 Abamectin.Sulfoxaflor DC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
20 Abamectin.Sulfoxaflor SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
21 Acetamiprid AL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
22 Acetamiprid DC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
23 Acetamiprid ME Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
24 Acetamiprid SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
25 Acetamiprid.Buprofezin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
26 Acetamiprid.Buprofezin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
27 Acetamiprid.Emamectinbenzoate WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
28 Acetamiprid.Emamectinbenzoate WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
29 Acetamiprid.Etofenprox EP Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
30 Acetamiprid.Flubendiamide WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
31 Acetamiprid.Indoxacarb SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
32 Acetamiprid.Lufenuron SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
33 Acetamiprid.Lufenuron WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
34 Acetamiprid.Metaflumizone SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
35 Acetamiprid.Pymetrozine WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
36 Acetamiprid.Pymetrozine WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
37 Acetamiprid.Pyrifluquinazon WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
38 Acetamiprid.Pyriproxyfen DC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
39 Acetamiprid.Sulfoxaflor WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
40 Acetamiprid.Tebufenozide SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
41 Acetamiprid.Tebufenozide WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
42 Aclonifen.Oxadiargyl SC Cat. IV Cat. III GHS 5 GHS 5
43 Alpha-cypermethrin.Tebufenozide SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
44 Amisulbrom FG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
45 Amisulbrom.Chlorothalonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
46 Amisulbrom.Dinotefuran WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
47 Amisulbrom.Valifenalate SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
48 Asulam-sodium.Glufosinate-ammonium SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
49 Azimsulfuron.Benfuresate.Fentrazamide GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
50 Azimsulfuron.Benzobicyclon.Fentrazamide UG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
51 Azimsulfuron.Benzobicyclon.Ipfencarbazone GG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
52 Azimsulfuron.Benzobicyclon.Metamifop.Pretilachlor GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
53 Azimsulfuron.Benzobicyclon.Oxaziclomefone GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
54 Azimsulfuron.Benzobicyclon.Oxaziclomefone UG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
55 Azimsulfuron.Benzobicyclon.Pyriminobac-methyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
56 Azimsulfuron.Bromobutide.Mefenacet GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
57 Azimsulfuron.Flucetosulfuron.Mesotrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
58 Azimsulfuron.Mefenacet.Mesotrione GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
59 Azimsulfuron.Oxaziclomefone.Tefuryltrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
60 Azocyclotin.Bifenthrin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
61 Azocyclotin.Etoxazole SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
62 Azoxystrobin ME Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
63 Azoxystrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
64 Azoxystrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
65 Azoxystrobin,Propiconazole SE Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
66 Azoxystrobin.chlorothalonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 unclassified
67 Azoxystrobin.Difenoxonazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
68 Azoxystrobin.Difenoxonazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
69 Azoxystrobin.Difenoxonazole WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
70 Azoxystrobin.Dimethomorph SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
71 Azoxystrobin.Dimethomorph WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
72 Azoxystrobin.Fluazinam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
73 Azoxystrobin.Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
74 Azoxystrobin.Isopyrazam SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
75 Azoxystrobin.Oxathiapiprolin SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
76 Azoxystrobin.Propiconazole SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
77 Azoxystrobin.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. III GHS 5 GHS5
78 Azoxystrobin.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
79 Azoxystrobin.Tebuconazole WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
80 Azoxystrobin.Tetraconazole SE Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
81 Azoxystrobin.Validamycin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
82 Azoxystrobin.Validamycin.Etofenprox SE Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
83 Benfuracarb GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
84 Benfuracarb.Diazinon GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
85 Benfuracarb.Etofenprox GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
86 Benfuracarb.Fosthiazate GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
87 Benfuracarb.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
88 Benfuresate.Bromobutide.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
89 Benfuresate.Carfentrazone-ethyl.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
90 Benfuresate.MCPA.Pyriminobac-methyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
91 Benfuresate.Mesotrione.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
92 Benfuresate.Mesotrione.Penoxsulam SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
93 Benfuresate.Pyrimisulfan GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
94 Bensulfuron-methyl.Benzobicyclon.Fentrazamide GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
95 Bensulfuron-methyl.Benzobicyclon.Fentrazamide UG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
96 Bensulfuron-methyl.Benzobicyclon.Oxaziclomefon SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
97 Bensulfuron-methyl.Benzobicyclon.Penoxsulam DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
98 Bensulfuron-methyl.Bromobutide.Fentrazamide GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
99 Bensulfuron-methyl.Bromobutide.Penoxsulam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
100 Bensulfuron-methyl.MCPA.Mefenacet SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
101 Bentazone sodium GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
102 Bentazone sodium.Glyphosate-isopropylamine SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
103 Bentazone sodium.Glufosinate-ammonium SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
104 Bentazone.Flucetosulfuron.Simetryn GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
105 Bentazone.MCPA SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
106 Bentazone.MCPA WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
107 Bentazone.MCPA.Propanil ME Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
108 Bentazone.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
109 Bentazone.Propanil ME Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
110 Bentazone.Pyriminobac-methyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
111 Bentazone.Tefuryltrione GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
112 Bentazone-sodium.MCPA.Triafamone GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
113 Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
114 Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl.Chlorothalonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
115 Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl.Oxathiapiprolin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
116 Benzobicyclon.Carfentrazone-ethyl.Penoxsulam ZC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
117 Benzobicyclon.Cyclosulfamuron.Mefenacet SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
118 Benzobicyclon.Cyclosulfamuron.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
119 Benzobicyclon.Cyclosulfamuron.Penoxsulam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
120 Benzobicyclon.Fentrazamide.Imazosulfuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
121 Benzobicyclon.Fentrazamide.Penoxsulam DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
122 Benzobicyclon.Florpyrauxifen-benzyl.Penoxsulam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
123 Benzobicyclon.Flucetosulfuron.Imazosulfuron DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
124 Benzobicyclon.Imazosulfuron.Ipfencarbazone SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
125 Benzobicyclon.Imazosulfuron.Penoxsulam DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
126 Benzobicyclon.Mefenacet.Propyrisulfuron SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
127 Benzobicyclon.Mefenacet.Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl GG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
128 Benzobicyclon.Metamifop.Pretilachlor.Pyrazosulfuronethyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
129 Benzobicyclon.Orthosulfamuron.Penoxsulam DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
130 Benzobicyclon.Orthosulfamuron.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
131 Benzobicyclon.Oxadiazon SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
132 Benzobicyclon.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
133 Benzobicyclon.Penoxsulam.Pyraclonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
134 Benzobicyclon.Pyraclonil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
135 Benzobicyclon.Pyrimisulfan GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
136 Benzobicyclon.Pyrimisulfan SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
137 Beta-cyfluthrin DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
138 Bifenox.Glyphosate-isopropylamine ME Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
139 Bifenthrin DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
140 Bifenthrin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
141 Bifenthrin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 unclassified
142 Bifenthrin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
143 Bifenthrin.Chlorfenapyr FW Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
144 Bifenthrin.Etoxazole ME Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
145 Bifenthrin.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
146 Bifenthrin.Lufenuron.Pymetrozine WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
147 Bifenthrin.Novaluron SC Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
148 Bifenthrin.Novaluron SC Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
149 Bifenthrin.Phoxim GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
150 Bifenthrin.Sulfoxaflor SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
151 Bistrifluron.Emamectinbenzoate WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
152 BLAD SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
153 Boscalid WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
154 Boscalid WT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
155 Boscalid.Pyraclostrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
156 Bromobutide.Carfentrazone-ethyl.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
157 Bromobutide.Fentrazamide GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
158 Bromobutide.Fentrazamide.Flucetosulfuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
159 Bromobutide.Fentrazamide.Halosulfuron-methyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
160 Bromobutide.Fentrazamide.Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
161 Bromobutide.Halosulfuron-methyl.Oxaziclomefone GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
162 Bromobutide.Imazosulfuron.Pyraclonil GG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
163 Bromobutide.Imazosulfuron.Pyraclonil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
164 Bromobutide.MCPA.Orthosulfamuron.Penoxsulam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
165 Bromobutide.Oxadiargyl SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
166 Bromobutide.Oxaziclomefone.Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
167 Bromobutide.Penoxsulam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
168 Bromobutide.Pretilachlor.Simetryn EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
169 Bromobutide.Propyrisulfuron.Thiobencarb GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
170 Bromobutide.Pyraclonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
171 Bromobutide.Pyraclonil.Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
172 Bromobutide.Pyrimisulfan SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
173 Buprofezin.Imidacloprid WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
174 Buprofezin.Lambda-cyhalothrin EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
175 Buprofezin.Pyrifluquinazon SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
176 Buprofezin.Spinetoram SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
177 Cadusafos.Terbufos GR Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 4
178 Captan WT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
179 Captan.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
180 Captan.Tebuconazole WT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
181 Carbendazim.Trifloxystrobin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
182 Carbosulfan.Tefluthrin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
183 Carboxin WS Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
184 Chlorantraniliprole WT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
185 Chlorfenapyr SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
186 Chlorfenapyr SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
187 Chlorfenapyr SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
188 Chlorfenapyr SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
189 Chlorfenapyr.Etofenprox SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
190 Chlorfluazuron.Indoxacarb SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
191 Chlorothalonil.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
192 Chromafenozide.Etofenprox EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
193 Clomazone.Fentrazamide EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
194 Clothianidin.Tebufenozide SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
195 Cyantraniliprole EC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
196 Cyantraniliprole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
197 Cyantraniliprole SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
198 Cyantraniliprole.Pymetrozine WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
199 Cyantraniliprole.Pymetrozine WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
200 Cyantraniliprole.Thiamethoxam WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
201 Cyazofamid.Fluopicolide SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
202 Cyazofamid.Valifenalate SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
203 Cyclaniliprole SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
204 Cyenopyrafen.Etoxazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
205 Cyflumetofen DC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
206 Cyflumetofen.Fenpyroximate SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
207 Cyhalofop-butyl.Pyribenzoxim EC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
208 Dazomet GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
209 Deltamethrin EW Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
210 Deltamethrin.Lambda-cyhalothrin WP Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
211 Deltamethrin.Methoxyfenozide SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
212 Deltamethrin.Tebupirimfos GR Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
213 Dichlobenil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
214 Dichlorvos.Lambda-cyhalothrin DC Cat. III Cat. III GHS 3 GHS 3
215 Difenoxonazole.Dithianon WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
216 Difenoxonazole.Fluxapyroxad SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
217 Difenoxonazole.Pyraclostrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
218 Difenoxonazole.Pyribencarb SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
219 Diflubenzuron.Imidacloprid WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
220 Diflubenzuron.Sulfoxaflor WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
221 Dimethametryn GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
222 Dimethoate GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
223 Dimethomorph WP Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 unclassified
224 Dimethomorph.Fluazinam SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
225 Dimethomorph.Picarbutrazox SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
226 Dimethyl disulfide AL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
227 Dimethyl disulfide EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
228 Dinotefuran WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
229 Dinotefuran.Etofenprox FG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
230 Dinotefuran.Methoxyfenozide WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
231 Dinotefuran.Spinetoram WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
232 Dinotefuran.Zeta-cypermethrin DC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
233 Diquat dibromide SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
234 Diquat dibromide.Glufosinate-ammonium SL Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
235 Dithianon WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
236 Emamectinbenzoate AL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 unclassified
237 Emamectinbenzoate EC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified°° GHS 5
238 Emamectinbenzoate EC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
239 Emamectinbenzoate EW Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
240 Emamectinbenzoate SG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
241 Emamectinbenzoate.Acetamiprid SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
242 Emamectinbenzoate.Flonicamid WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
243 Ethephon.Gibberellin A4+7 SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
244 Ethoprophos.Terbufos GR Cat. III Cat. III GHS 3 GHS 3
245 Ethylformate GA Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
246 Etofenprox EP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
247 Etofenprox.Pyridalyl ME Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
248 Etofenprox.Sulfoxaflor SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
249 Etridiazole.Thifluzamide EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
250 Famoxadone DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
251 Famoxadone.Oxathiapiprolin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
252 Famoxadone.Valifenalate EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
253 Fenbuconazole.Tiadinil.Benfuracarb GR Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
254 Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl DC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
255 Fenoxasulfone.Metazosulfuron DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
256 Fenoxasulfone.Penoxsulam.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
257 Fenoxasulfone.Pyrimisulfan GG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
258 Fenoxasulfone.Pyrimisulfan SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
259 Fenpyrazamine WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
260 Fentrazamide.Metazosulfuron DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
261 Fentrazamide.Metazosulfuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
262 Fentrazamide.Pretilachlor EC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
263 Fentrazamide.Pyrimisulfan DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
264 Fentrazamide.Simetryn EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
265 Fentrazamide.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
266 Ferimzone SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
267 Ferimzone.Fluxapyroxad SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
268 Ferimzone.Isotianil SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
269 Ferimzone.Kasugamycin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
270 Ferimzone.Pencycuron SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
271 Ferimzone.Thifluzamide SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
272 Ferimzone.Thifluzamide.Metaflumizone SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
273 Ferimzone.Thiophanate-methyl SC Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
274 Ferimzone.Validamycin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
275 Ferimzone.Validamycin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
276 Ferimzone.Validamycin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
277 Flazasulfuron.Imazaquin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
278 Flazasulfuron.MCPA WG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
279 Flazasulfuron.MCPA WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
280 Flonicamid WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
281 Flonicamid.Thiacloprid WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
282 Florpyrauxifen-benzyl EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
283 Florpyrauxifen-benzyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
284 Fluazinam DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
285 Fluazinam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
286 Fluazinam.Acetamiprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
287 Fluazinam.Propineb WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
288 Fluazinam.Trifloxystrobin WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
289 Flucetosulfuron.Halosulfuron-methyl.Mesotrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
290 Fludioxonil DC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
291 Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
292 Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
293 Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
294 Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
295 Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
296 Fludioxonil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
297 Fludioxonil WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
298 Fludioxonil.Hexaconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
299 Fludioxonil.Isofetamid SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
300 Fludioxonil.Penthiopyrad SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
301 Fludioxonil.Prochoraz FS Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
302 Fludioxonil.Prochoraz SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
303 Fluensulfone EC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
304 Flufenoxuron.Sulfoxaflor SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
305 Fluopyram GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
306 Fluopyram.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified unclassified
307 Fluopyram.Trifloxystrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
308 Flupoxam WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
309 Flupyradifurone SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
310 Fluquinconazole.Fluxapyroxad SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
311 Fluquinconazole.Prochlorazmanganese PA Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
312 Fluquinconazole.Prochlorazmanganese PA Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
313 Fluroxypyr-meptyl.Triclopyr-TEA ME Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
314 Flusulfamide FG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
315 Flusulfamide.Fluxapyroxad FG Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
316 Fluthiacet-methyl.Glufosinate-ammonium ME Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
317 Flutolanil.Hymexazol WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
318 Fluxametamide EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
319 Fluxametamide EW Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
320 Fluxapyroxad FW Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
321 Fluxapyroxad GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
322 Fluxapyroxad.Kresoxim-methyl SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
323 Fluxapyroxad.Metrafenone SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
324 Fluxapyroxad.Probenazole.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
325 Foramsulfuron OD Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
326 Fosthiazate GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
327 Fosthiazate GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
328 Fosthiazate GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
329 Fosthiazate SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
330 Gibberellic acid.Gibberellin A4+7 SP Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
331 Gibberellic acid.Gibberellin A4+7.6-Benzyl aminopurine SP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
332 Glufosinate-ammonium SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
333 Glufosinate-ammonium SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
334 Glufosinate-ammonium.MCPA SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
335 Glufosinate-ammonium.MCPA SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
336 Glufosinate-ammonium.MCPA SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 4
337 Glufosinate-ammonium.Mecoprop-p SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
338 Glufosinate-p SL Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
339 Glyphosate.Mecoprop-p SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
340 Glyphosate-ammonium.MCPA SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
341 Glyphosate-isopropylamine PA Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified unclassified
342 Glyphosate-isopropylamine.MCPA SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
343 Glyphosate-isopropylamine.Mecoprop SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
344 Glyphosate-isopropylamine.Tiafenacil SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
345 Glyphosate-potassium SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
346 Glyphosate-potassium SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
347 Glyphosate-potassium SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
348 Hexaconazole.Isoprothiolane GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
349 Hexaconazole.Tebuconazole EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
350 Hexaconazole.Tebuconazole EC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
351 Hexaconazole.Tebufloquin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
352 Hexaconazole.Tefluthrin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
353 Hexaconazole.Tiadinil SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
354 Hexaconazole.Trycyclazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
355 Hymexazol.Penthiopyrad DC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
356 Imazaquin.Pendimethalin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
357 Imazosulfuron.Mefenacet.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
358 Imicyafos SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
359 Imidacloprid.Spirotetramat SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
360 Iminoctadine tris(albesilate).Pyribencarb WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
361 Iminoctadinetriacetate.Penthiopyrad SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
362 Iminoctadinetriacetate.Thiophanate-methyl PA Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
363 Indaziflam SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS5
364 Indoxacarb EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 unclassified
365 Indoxacarb SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
366 Indoxacarb SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
367 Indoxacarb.Novaluron SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
368 Ipconazole FS Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
369 Ipfencarbazone.Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl.Tefuryltrione GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
370 Ipfencarbazone.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
371 Isofetamid SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
372 Isofetamid.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
373 Isotianil.Chlorantraniliprole.Clothianidin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
374 Isotianil.Chlorantraniliprole.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
375 Isotianil.Clothianidin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
376 Isotianil.Penflufen.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
377 Kasugamycin.Validamycin.Clothianidin SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
378 Kresoxim-methyl WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
379 Kresoxim-methyl.Triflumizole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
380 Lambda-cyhalothrin DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
381 Lambda-cyhalothrin.Sulfoxaflor SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
382 Lambda-cyhalothrin.Sulfoxaflor SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
383 Lime sulfur DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
384 Lufenuron EW Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
385 Lufenuron WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
386 Mandestrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
387 MCPA.Metazosulfuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
388 Mecoprop-p.Metamifop ME Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
389 Mefenacet.Metazosulfuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
390 Mesotrione.Metazosulfuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
391 Mesotrione.Penoxsulam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
392 Metaflumizone WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
393 Metalaxyl.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
394 Metalaxyl.Tebuconazole GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
395 Metalaxyl-M GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
396 Metalaxyl-M.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
397 Metaldehyde GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
398 Metam-sodium SL Cat. III Cat. III GHS 4 GHS 5
399 Metam-sodium SL Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
400 Metazachlor GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
401 Metazosulfuron DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
402 Metazosulfuron WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
403 Metazosulfuron WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
404 Metazosulfuron.Oxaziclomefone SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
405 Metazosulfuron.Pretilachlor GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
406 Metazosulfuron.Tefuryltrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
407 Metazosulfuron.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
408 Metconazole.Bifenthrin EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
409 Metconazole.Bifenthrin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
410 Metconazole.Pyraclostrobin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
411 Methidathion WP Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 3 GHS 5
412 Methoxyfenozide.Sulfoxaflor SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
413 Metolachlor EW Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
414 Metolachlor FG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
415 Napropamide GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
416 Orysastrobin.Benfuracarb GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
417 Orysastrobin.Benfuracarb.Chlorantraniliprole GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
418 Orysastrobin.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
419 Orysastrobin.Probenazole.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
420 Orysastrobin.Prochlorazmanganese.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
421 Orysastrobin.Trycyclazole.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
422 Oxadiargyl.Oxadiazon EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
423 Oxathiapiprolin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
424 Oxaziclomefone.Penoxsulam.Tefuryltrione GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
425 Oxaziclomefone.Tefuryltrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
426 Oxaziclomefone.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
427 Oxaziclomefone.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
428 Oxaziclomefone.Tefuryltrione SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
429 Oxolinic acid.Oxytetracycline WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
430 Oxolinic acid.Streptomycin WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
431 Oxolinicacid SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
432 Oxytetracycline WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
433 Oxytetracycline.Validamycin WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
434 Paclobutrazol SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 unclassified
435 Pencycuron GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
436 Penoxsulam.Tefuryltrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
437 Penthiopyrad SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
438 Penthiopyrad.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
439 Penthiopyrad.Trifloxystrobin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
440 Picarbutrazox SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
441 Picarbutrazox WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
442 Polyoxin B WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
443 Pretilachlor.Tefuryltrione EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
444 Probenazole.Benfuracarb GR Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
445 Probenazole.Clothianidin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
446 Probenazole.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
447 Prochlorazmanganese GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
448 Prochoraz.Triflumizole EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
449 Propanil.Pyriminobac-methyl EC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
450 Propiconazole DC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
451 Propiconazole EW Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
452 Propineb.Pyraclostrobin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
453 Pyflubumide SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
454 Pymetrozine WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
455 Pyraclonil.Tefuryltrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
456 Pyraclostrobin EC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
457 Pyraclostrobin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
458 Pyraclostrobin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
459 Pyraclostrobin WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
460 Pyraclostrobin.Fluazinam SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
461 Pyraclostrobin.Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
462 Pyribencarb FS Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
463 Pyribencarb SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
464 Pyribencarb WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
465 Pyribencarb.Tebuconazole SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
466 Pyribencarb.Thiophanate-methyl SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
467 Pyribencarb.Triflumizole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
468 Pyribenzoxim EC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
469 Pyridalyl.Tebufenozide SE Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
470 Pyrifluquinazon SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
471 Pyrimisulfan.Tefuryltrione DT Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
472 S-metolachlor EC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
473 S-metolachlor.Thiobencarb GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
474 Spinosad WG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
475 Spirodiclofen SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
476 Spirotetramat.Thiacloprid SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
477 Sulfoxaflor GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
478 Sulfur.Buprofezin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
479 Tebuconazole SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
480 Tebuconazole.Buprofezin WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
481 Tebuconazole.Dimethoate GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
482 Tebuconazole.Lambda-cyhalothrin GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
483 Tebuconazole.Terbufos GR Cat. III Cat. III GHS 3 GHS 3
484 Tebuconazole.Thiophanate-methyl GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
485 Tebuconazole.Thiophanate-methyl WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
486 Tebufloquin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
487 Tefuryltrione.Triafamone GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
488 Tefuryltrione.Triafamone SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
489 Tetraconazole.Thifluzamide EC Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
490 Thiacloprid SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
491 Thiacloprid SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
492 Thiamethoxam FG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
493 Thiamethoxam FG Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
494 Thiamethoxam SL Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
495 Thifluzamide.Tiadinil.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
496 Tiadinil.Benfuracarb.Chlorantraniliprole GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
497 Tiadinil.Chlorantraniliprole.Triflumezopyrim GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
498 Tiadinil.Dinotefuran GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
499 Tiadinil.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
500 Tiadinil.Flubendiamide.Thiacloprid SC Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
501 Tiadinil.Thiamethoxam GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
502 Tiafenacil ME Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 5 GHS 5
503 Trifloxystrobin WP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
504 Trinexapac-ethyl SL Cat. IV Cat. III unclassified GHS 5
505 Trycyclazole,Validamycin SC Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
506 Trycyclazole.Carbosulfan.Imidacloprid GR Cat. IV Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
507 Trycyclazole.Fipronil GR Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
508 Trycyclazole.Validamycin.Etofenprox SE Cat. III Cat. IV GHS 4 GHS 5
509 Validamycin SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
510 Valifenalate SC Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5
511 Zeta-cypermethrin DP Cat. IV Cat. IV unclassified GHS 5


Fig. 2. 
Comparison of oral and dermal classification for plant protection products by the Korean classification scheme. The spotted pattern represents that oral categorization is lower than dermal (oral > dermal toxicity). The diagonal pattern represents concordant outcomes between oral and dermal categorization and gray shading does that oral categorization is higher than dermal (oral < dermal toxicity).

국내 급성 독성 분류 기준과 다르지만 본 연구와 유사한 연구결과가 발표되었다. 미국의 농약 독성 분류 체계를 따를 시, 592 제품 중 94.9%가 급성경구독성이 급성경피독성과 동일하거나 더 독성이 강한 것으로 확인되었다(US EPA, 2016). 캐나다의 농약 급성독성 분류체계를 적용하였을 때에는 592제품 중 99.7%의 제품이 급성경피 독성시험 없이 급성경구독성으로 그림문자 및 위험문구를 표기할 수 있을 것으로 평가되었다(PMRA, 2017a, 2017b).

GHS 분류체계에 따른 제품의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 비교

GHS 분류 체계를 적용하였을 때, 농약관리법에 따른 분류와 유사한 결과가 도출되었다. 제품의 77.9%에서 급성경구독성 등급과 급성경피독성 등급이 동일하였고, 21.9%에서 급성경구독성이 더 강한 것으로 분류되었다. GHS 분류체계를 적용하였을 시, 1개의 제품(Glufosinate-ammonium. MCPA SL)에서만 급성경피독성이 급성경구독성보다 강한 것으로 분류되어 제품의 99.8%가 경구독성시험성적으로 제품의 독성이 표시되었다(Table 2, Fig. 3). 본 연구 결과와 유사하게 캐나다에 등록된 농약에 대해서 GHS 분류체계 적용 시 592제품 중 99.7%가 급성경구독성이 급성경피독성과 동일하거나 더 독성이 강한 것으로 확인되었다(PMRA, 2017a, 2017b). 또한 225개 제품에 대해서도 100% 제품 모두 경구독성이 더 강하거나 경피독성과 동일하였다(Corvaro et al., 2016). 따라서 농약 품목에 GHS 분류 체계를 도입할 시, 노출경로에 따라 독성양상에서 차이가 발생할 수 있지만 경피노출 시 독성이 더 낮아 급성경구독성 자료만으로도 충분히 농약의 독성을 구분 및 표시 할 수 있을 것이라고 판단되었다.


Fig. 3. 
Comparison of oral and dermal classification for plant protection products by the GHS categorization system. The spotted pattern represents that oral toxicity is more potent compared to dermal. The diagonal pattern represents oral and dermal studies provide the same toxicity category and gray shading does that dermal toxicity is higher than oral.

원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에 따른 원제의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성 비교

54개 원제는 급성경구독성에서 구분 5 또는 분류되지 않음(unclassified)으로 구분되었으나, 급성경피독성에서는 71개의 원제가 구분 5 또는 분류되지 않음(unclassified)으로 구분되었다(Table 3; Fig. 4). 농촌진흥청 고시 원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에 따라 분류하였을 때 원제 76.4%의 독성분류가 동일하였고 23.6% 원제가 급성경구독성이 더 강하게 분류되었다(Fig. 4). 국외 연구결과에서도 농약 원제 298개중 4%만 급성경피독성이 더 강한 것으로 나타났다(PMRA, 2017a, 2017b). 또한 다른 연구에서 337개의 원제에 대해 1.78%만 급성경피독성이 더 강한 것으로 확인되었다(Seidle et al., 2011). 경구독성 등급이 분류되지않음(unclassified)으로 구분되는 원제의 경우 100%가 경피독성과 경구독성 등급이 동일하였으므로 경구독성이 분류되지않음(unclassified)으로 구분될 때, 급성경피독성 시험을 필수로 제출하지 않아도 될 것으로 판단되었다.

Table 3. 
Acute oral and dermal classification of active substances
No Active substance Oral classification
by oral LD50
Dermal classification
by dermal LD50
Dermal classification
by oral LD50
1 Acequinocyl Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
2 Ametoctradin Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
3 Amisulbrom Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
4 Benalaxyl-M Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
5 Chlorantraniliprole Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
6 Cyantraniliprole Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
7 Cyclaniliprole Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
8 Cyenopyrafen Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
9 Epoxiconazole Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
10 Fenoxasulfone Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
11 Fenpyrazamine Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
12 Florpyrauxifen-benzyl Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
13 Flubendiamide Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
14 Fluopyram Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
15 Flupyradifurone Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 4
16 Flutianil Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
17 Flutriafol Cat 4 Cat 4 Cat 4
18 Fluxametamide Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
19 Fluxapyroxad Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
20 Glufosinate-P Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
21 Ipconazole Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
22 Ipfencarbazone Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
23 Isofetamide Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
24 Isopyrazam Cat 5 Unclassified Cat 5
25 Isotianil Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
26 Lepimectin Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
27 Mandestrobin Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
28 Mandipropamid Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
29 MCPA Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 4
30 Mefentrifluconazole Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
31 Meptyldinocap Cat 5 Unclassified Cat 5
32 Metaflumizone Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
33 Metaldehyde Cat 3 Unclassified Cat 3
34 Metam sodium Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
35 Metazachlor Cat 5 Unclassified Cat 5
36 Metazosulfuron Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
37 Methiozolin Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
38 Metrafenone Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
39 Novaluron Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
40 Orthosulfamuron Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
41 Oxathiapiprolin Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
42 Oxytetracycline Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
43 Paclobutrazol Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 4
44 Penflufen Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
45 Penthiopyrad Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
46 Picarbutrazox Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
47 Picoxystrobin Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
48 Propyrisulfuron Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
49 Proquinazid Cat 5 Unclassified Cat 5
50 Pyflubumide Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
51 Pyraclonil Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 4
52 Pyraclostrobin Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
53 Pyribencarb Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
54 Pyrifluquinazon Cat 4 Cat 5 -
55 Pyrimisulfan Cat 4 Cat 5 -
56 Pyriofenone Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
57 Quinmerac Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
58 Rimsulfuron Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
59 Saflufenacil Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
60 Sodium 5-nitroguaiacolate Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
61 SodiumO-nitrophenolate Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
62 Sodiump-nitrophenolate Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
63 Spinetoram Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified
64 Spirotetramat Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
65 Sulfoxaflor Cat 4 Unclassified Cat 3
66 Tebufloquin Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 3
67 Tefuryltrione Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
68 Tiafenacil Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
69 Trifloxysulfuron-sodium Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified
70 Triflumezopyrim Cat 5 Unclassified Cat 5
71 Triticonazole Cat 5 Cat 5 Cat 5
72 Valifenalate Unclassified Cat 5 Unclassified


Fig. 4. 
Comparison of oral and dermal classification for active ingredients by the RDA labelling criteria. The spotted pattern represents that exposure via oral route is more toxic than dermal. The diagonal pattern represents concordant outcomes between oral and dermal categorization and gray shading does that exposure by dermal is more toxic than oral.

급성경구독성 LD50 cut-off 값을 알 수 없는 원제 2개를 제외하고 급성경구독성시험의 LD50 값을 이용하여 원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에 따라 급성경피독성을 구분하였다(Table 3). 이를 급성경피독성 시험의 LD50 값으로 급성경피독성을 구분한 결과와 비교하였다(Fig. 5). 급성경피시험을 수행하지 않고 급성경구독성시험의 LD50 값으로 경피독성을 분류하였을 때, 기존 독성분류보다 독성이 더 강하게 평가(over-prediction)되는 경향이 나타났다. 이는 같은 독성등급(예. 구분 3)일지라도 급성경구독성의 기준(50 < LD50≤ 300 mg/kg bw)에 비해 급성경피독성 기준(200 < LD50≤ 1000 mg/kg bw) 값이 더 높기 때문에 나타난 것으로 판단하였다.


Fig. 5. 
Comparison of dermal toxicity classified by dermal and oral LD50. The spotted pattern indicates underprediction when oral LD50 value is used for dermal toxicity classification. The diagonal pattern means the same categorization and gray shading does over-prediction of dermal toxicity.


결 론

본 연구에서는 Thomas 등(2007)의 연구결과와 동일하게 급성경피독성시험이 추가적인 독성정보를 제공하지 못한다고 판단되었다. 분류체계에 상관없이 제품의 91.6% 이상이 급성경구독성으로 제품 독성이 구분되었다. 원제의 경우 원제의 위험성·유해성 분류에서 원제 100%가 급성경구독성이 급성경피독성 보다 더 강하거나 독성 등급이 동일하였다. 따라서 급성경구독성 자료를 이용하여 급성경피독성을 예측하고 농약 제품과 원제의 독성 구분 및 표시할 수 있을 것이라 판단되었다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 급성경구독성시험자료를 이용하여 급성경피독성 시험을 대체한다면 불필요한 독성실험을 줄 일 수 있을 것이다. 하지만 경구와 경피라는 노출경로에 따라 독성 발현 양상이 다르게 나타날 수 있다. 따라서 나노기술을 이용하여 생산된 제품 등 피부 흡수에 영향을 줄 가능성이 있는 농약의 경우 급성경구독성시험으로 급성경피독성시험을 대체하기 전에 체외 피부흡수율 시험을 통해 dermal bioavailability 정도를 파악해야 한다(PMRA, 2017b; Seidle, 2011). 또한 본 연구에서 농약관리법에 따른 제품의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성을 비교 시, 급성경구독성 저독성이었으나 급성경피독성이 보통독성인 경우는 8.4% (43/511)이었다(Fig. 2). 이들 43개 중 42개 시험성적서가 외국에서 2000 mg/kg bw 투여로 생산된 자료였으며, 국내 기준에 따라 4000 mg/kg bw 투여 시 저독성으로 분류될 가능성이 있는 제품이었다. GHS 분류체계에 따른 제품의 급성경구독성과 급성경피독성을 비교하였을 때 0.2% (1/511)만 급성경구독성 5급 또는 분류되지 않음이었으나 급성경피독성 4급으로 분류되어 급성경피독성이 더 강하게 판정되었고(Fig. 3), 원제의 경우 급성경구독성 5급 또는 분류되지 않음이면서 급성경피독성 4급으로 분류되는 경우는 없었다(Fig. 4). 이러한 점들을 고려하였을 때 급성경구독성 저독성 또는 5급/분류되지 않음으로 구분될 때, 급성경피독성 시험을 면제하거나 대체하되 피부자극성 자료, GHS 가산식(additivity formula) 결과 등을 제출해야 한다는 구체적인 조건을 검토할 필요가 있다.


Acknowledgments

본 연구는 농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농업과학기술 연구개발사업 (과제번호: PJ011785022018)의 지원에 의해 수행되었으며 이에 감사드립니다.


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